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BecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseSome say thatHoweverBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseBecauseShould we end thepractice of tipping in theUnited States?You decide!1.1DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:1. In your opinion, does tipping motivate employees?2. Does the fact that tipping is an arbitrary practiceimpact your decision on whether or not it should becontinued?3. Does the discriminatory origin story of tipping in theUnited States affect whether or not we should continuethe practice?4. Is it more just for consumers to choose how much totip or for there to be a set amount - and why?We should end the practiceof tipping in the US1.2Tipping enablesrestaurants andcorporations to takeadvantage ofemployees2.1Tipping enablesrestaurants to payworkers below theminimum wage3.1According to TIMEmagazine, "tipssubsidize a server orbartender's salary atthe vast majority ofnearly 650,000restaurants in thecountry."4.1As of 2021, theFederal minimumwage is $7.25, but theFederal minimumcash wage is only$2.134.2According to theEconomic PolicyInstitute, the povertyrate amongrestaurant workers issignificantly lower(only 7%, comparedto 18%) in stateswhere restaurants arerequired to pay [thenon-tipping]minimum wage as abase salary.4.3Restaurants shouldpay adequate wagesto their employees3.2Restaurants ownerssometimes keep aportion of tips forthemselves3.3Tipping has aproblematic originstory2.2Tipping is arguably avestige of slavery andracial oppression inthe US3.4According to SaruJayaraman, director of theFood Labor Research Centerat UC Berkeley, after theCivil War many employerswould not actually payworkers in menial positions,under the condition thatguests would offer a smalltip. "These industriesdemanded the right tobasically continue slaverywith a $0 wage and tip."4.4Tipping continuesdiscriminatorypractices that traceback more than acentury3.5Research fromRestaurantOpportunitiesCenters Uniteddemonstrates thatwomen make up two-thirds of tippedworkers in states thatdon't mandate fullminimum wage.4.5Jayaraman posits thatthis phenomenon“indicates the valuethat America hasplaced on women,and in particularwomen of color, overthe last 150 years.”4.6Tipping is an arbitrarypractice2.3Tipping is not acommon practiceacross manyprofessions, even inservice jobs such asclerks and cashiers3.6Different tippingcustoms governdifferent types ofrestaurants3.7Tipping at fast foodrestaurants is notexpected4.7Tipping at a sit-downrestaurant issocietally expected4.8Tips motivateemployees to workharder2.4A 2001 study byMichael Lynn ofCornell demonstratedthat, "using tips as ameasure of effort oras motivation forhard work isineffective [as] thereis little to nocorrelation betweentips andperformance"3.8BACKGROUND:Tipping is an extremely common practice across theUnited States, especially for services such asrestaurants, food delivery, haircuts and cab rides. Yet,many other countries across the world don't practicetipping at nearly the same levels as the US. Is tippingbeneficial to US society, or could it actually beharmful?You decide!1.4We should continue thepractice of tipping in theUS1.3Tipping providesmotivation foremployees to providequality service toconsumers2.5On average, betterservers receive highertips than worseemployees3.9Research fromCornell's MichaelLynn reveals thatemployees can securebetter tips throughproven methods suchas buildingrelationship withcustomers andwelcoming bodylanguage3.10Tipping empowersconsumers with thefreedom of choice2.6Consumers areempowered torecognize especiallygood service with anamount of theirchoosing3.11Consumers canpenalize poor oroffensive service withlower tips3.12Freedom of choice isa hallmark ofAmerican society2.7Tipping benefitsrestaurants financially2.8Restaurants can lowerlabor costs throughcompensating forlower wages withhigher tips3.13It would be disruptiveto American societyto end the practice oftipping2.9Tipping is a widelyintegrated practice3.14Ending the practice oftipping would requirea completerestructuring ofexisting federalminimum wage laws3.15Tips provide a form ofquick cash for serviceworkers2.10Employees need notwait until their formalpay period to collecttips3.16Those working inservice positionsoften need access toquick cash2.11

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