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Should we adopt self-driving cars ASAP?You decide!1.1DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:1. How should autonomous vehicles be programmed to makemoral decisions in the case of accidents?2. Who should be held responsible in the case of accidentsinvolving autonomous vehicles?3. How could infrastructure pitfalls cause problems forautonomous vehicles?4. What goals should manufacturers of autonomous vehiclesbe required to meet before making their products publiclyavailable?YES: We shouldembrace self-drivingcars1.3Autonomous vehiclescould make our roadssignificantly safer2.1According to theNational HighwayTraffic SafetyAdministration, 94%of driving-relatedaccidents involvedriver error orinattention3.1Autonomous vehiclestake human error andinattention out ofdriving3.2Autonomous vehicleswill make peoplemore productive2.2The averageAmerican spendsnearly an hour perday commuting3.3With a self-drivingcar, people will beable to work or sleepduring theircommute, rather thanhaving to focus ondriving3.4Autonomous vehiclescould free space,especially in cities, fornew development3.5Many cities in the USdevote 50-60% oftheir real estate spaceto parking4.1The San FranciscoMunicipalTransportationAgency is pursuing aplan to phase out its440,000 on-streetparking spaces byreducing the numberof vehicles on itsstreets throughadoption ofautonomous electricride-sharing services4.2Autonomous vehiclescould help minimizeour environmentalimpact2.3Even thoughautonomous vehiclesmay emit the samepollutants astraditional cars, theycould reduceemissions by beingmore efficient thanhuman drivers3.6Researchers at theUniversity ofDelaware produced a30% increase in fuelefficiency in tests oftheir algorithm'sautonomous drivingperformance4.3Autonomous vehiclescould primarily cometo the public throughride-sharing fleets3.7Many of the leadingcompaniesdevelopingautonomous vehicles,including Cruise,Waymo, and Lyft arespecifically focusedon introducing thetechnology in variousride sharingplatforms4.4Ride-sharing benefitsthe environment byreducing the amountof cars on the road3.8Autonomous vehiclescould save peoplemoney2.4Autonomous vehicleswould reduceaccident-inducedcosts3.9Fewer accidentswould reduce repaircosts4.5Increased safetywould lead to lowerinsurance premiumsfor owners ofautonomous vehicles4.6Autonomous vehiclesdon’t sustain thesame kind of wearand tear as human-piloted vehicles3.10Data gathered fromGoogle’s self-drivingPrius and Lexus carsshowed that when ahuman was behindthe wheel, Google’scars accelerated andbraked significantlymore sharply thanthey did whenpiloting themselves4.7Without as muchwear and tear,maintenance costs forvehicles would belower3.11Autonomous vehiclescould help mobilizepeople who areunable to drivethemselves2.5Fully autonomousvehicles would beable to transportblind, elderly ordisabled peoplewithout requiringthem to rely on otherpeople3.12According to MaxAshton, a blind manwho has participatedin autonomouscarmaker Waymo'sArizona-based ride-share program, "Thistechnology really hasthe potential tochange how I live mylife"4.8NO: We should notembrace self-driving cars1.4Making carsautonomous is notthe best way toaddress the problemof vehicle safety2.6Cars themselves aremore the problemthan inattentivedrivers3.13Moving heavy metalobjects at high speedsis inherentlydangerous, regardlessof who's driving,especially nearpedestrians andcyclists4.9We should beexploring new modelsfor transportationrather thancommitting ourselvesfurther to cars3.14Adoptingautonomous vehiclesmay damage theenvironment worsethan traditional cars2.7Autonomous vehiclescould be less fuel-efficient thantraditional cars3.15The improved safetyof autonomousvehicles could lead tofaster driving, whichrequires more fuel tocounteract airresistance4.10Some autonomousvehicle models couldbe larger thantraditional cars toaccommodate newmodes of use4.11Honda has come upwith a concept for anautonomous vehiclethat can serve as aguest room or pantryand attaches as a partof the house5.1Larger vehiclesrequire moreresources to produceand power4.12Widespread adoptionof autonomous carsas personal vehicleswould likely havedisastrous effects onthe environment3.16The improvementspromised byautonomous vehicles,including faster andsafer travel and theability to work orsleep whilecommuting, willincentivize people todrive more often andfurther4.13Expanding access anduse of vehicles couldworsen traffic4.14Traffic is a majorreason that driving isso energy inefficient4.15Traffic requiresvehicles to idle withtheir motors running,and accelerate often5.2Acceleration andidling are less fuelefficient thandecelerating ormaintaining constantspeed5.3Autonomous vehiclesare not safer thantraditional vehicles2.8Computers are notyet smart enough tohandle theunpredictability ofdriving in allcircumstances3.17According to Rodney Brooks, MITroboticist and AI researcher, "Evenwith an appropriate set of guidingprinciples there are going to be alot of perceptual challenges for[autonomous vehicles] that areway beyond those that currentdevelopers have solved with deeplearning networks"4.16Navigating road blockages andunmapped areas, interacting withpolice, charging or refueling,reacting to accidents andhandling towing situations aresome of the "edge cases" thatcomplicate the task of drivingbeyond what autonomousvehicles are capable of4.17The United States andmost other countrieshaven’t evenmanaged to fullyautomate their mass-transit systems, whichinvolve much simplerenvironments thanthose autonomouscars would face4.18Autonomous vehiclescreate a wide rangeof new dangers thattraditional cars do nothave3.18Autonomous vehiclesare vulnerable tohacking andcomputer viruses4.19Basic computingsystems in cars,including radio, airconditioning,transmission andbrakes, have alreadyproven vulnerable toremote hacking5.4According to self-driving car securityexpert Tim Mackey,"There’s all sorts ofsoftware put into carsthat is old and easy toaccess. We just haveto hope that thewake-up call will beminor and not killanyone."5.5Autonomous vehiclespromise to eliminatehuman error fromdriving, but there is areal risk of computererror in theiralgorithms4.20On March 18, 2018, aself-driving Uber hitand killed pedestrianElaine Herzberg aftermisidentifying her asan unknown object, avehicle, and then abicycle5.6BACKGROUND:A self-driving car, also known as an autonomous vehicle (AV), isa vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving safelywith little or no human input.Possible implementations of the technology include personal self-drivingvehicles, shared robotaxis, and long-distance trucking.Several projects to develop a fully self-driving commercial car are invarious stages of development. Waymo became the first service providerto offer robotaxi rides to the general public in Phoenix, Arizona in 2020.Tesla has said it will offer subscription-based "full self-driving" to privatevehicle owners in 2021, and Nuro has been allowed to start autonomouscommercial delivery operations in California in 2021.1.2

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